The damage done

Traditional Opioid Agonists Methadone and Suboxone have been the most widely used drugs in addiction therapy in West Virginia. Both are synthetic opioid-based medications that react with opioid receptors in the brain just as heroin or prescription narcotics would. These drugs are often used to wean people off of illicit drugs like heroin or prescription painkillers like oxycodone. Many of the injury-related deaths that put West Virginia in the lead nationally are attributed to drug overdoses, according to data compiled by Trust for America's Health TFAH.

The damage done

Email Horizontal directional drilling is increasingly being used to install sections of pipe across many spans that are considered high consequence areas. While regulation currently calls for extra consideration to be given to the coatings used to protect these sections of pipe from corrosion, the systems currently being employed may be insufficient.

Fiber-reinforced urethane abrasion-resistant overcoat systems can be employed to ensure the damage to the coating done by these types of installations is reduced or eliminated. In our modern world, new pipeline installation is a constant, and nearly every one being constructed has some portion that will be installed using horizontal directional drilling HDD.

HDD has become a vital part of new pipeline construction and there are many reasons for its acceptance. When a pipeline is installed by HDD or microtunneling, it is done so because an obstruction is in the way that must remain undisturbed, such as a road, lake, building, railroad, or river.

HDD has gained popularity because the pipe cannot be trenched into the ground in these areas the same way it is over stretches of open land. The very reasons why these vital sections should be protected are the same reasons that trenchless technology is used—the pipes run beneath our roads, lakes, buildings, railroads, and rivers.

Typically, these are classified as high consequence areas HCAs. What is being done to ensure these pipelines are as safe as possible in these HCAs?

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While investigating that question, many discussions were held with integrity engineers and pipeline operators to evaluate their methods and decision-making criteria. Nearly all the respondents, at some point, reference the guidelines provided by the U.

Because HDD installation methods expose pipeline coatings to the most aggressive situations a coating might experience, it is imperative that all methods are utilized to ensure the coating is protected during installation.

Conducting inspections or performing repairs that would typically require unearthing the pipe are not possible. Implementing the most proven technology available ensures a coating will remain intact in these inaccessible areas where spot repairs are not reasonably feasible.

Guidance In reviewing the CFR regarding coatings and corrosion control, Parts and very closely mirror one another. In general, they both say that new pipelines must have a coating used for corrosion control and it must work with the cathodic protection CP system.

Those seem like good and reasonable statements, but the interest here is in how to ensure those coating systems are still in place once thrust through a hole. Part contains the following verbiage and is similar: Department of Transportation DOT says that when a decision is made to do something, the only requirement to ensure that what is done complies with the regulation is to inspect it prior to installation.

There is no requirement to check or test the effectiveness of the coating system once the pipe is pulled through the excavation. So, the guidance referred to by the integrity engineers and pipeline operators does not require evidence that the corrosion barrier is still in place after pipe installation.

Industry Practice In the last few years, conscientious pipeline operators have implemented methods of inspecting the effectiveness of their selected corrosion barriers; however, these methods are not required or necessarily standard operating procedures.

Some operators will pull several joints of coated pipe through the HDD excavation first for visual inspection, but this is typically reserved for shorter pulls because of the added expense.

Other operators will add lengths of pipe to be pulled out on the other side so they can inspect the coatings to evaluate the amount of damage done to the coatings, and potentially the pipe itself. Both methods are far better than simply checking the coating before the pipe is installed; however, neither is a solution for coating damage.

Damage Done - Wikipedia

While pulling extra joints out on the other end is good for evaluating coating damage, what is usually done if damage is present at that point is to add more CP. The damaged coating, however, remains the same. The industry states that coatings should be the first line of defense against corrosion, but the trend of leaving pipelines in the ground with a damaged coating means CP is the only line of defense in areas where repairs cannot be made!

In an interview with the president of a large HDD contractor, it was noted that most companies still do not employ these more cautious test methods. Historically, one of the ways coatings were protected from damage was to use a casing pipe.

Many of the casings were even installed by HDD. While that method may have been effective in some ways, today more is known about the issues that casings can cause, and nearly all are being phased out.

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Several years ago, a panel was interviewed regarding casings. This method of protection is no longer a widely accepted method, and the numerous reasons why were presented in a discussion, published in Pipeline and Gas Journal.

In an article regarding pipeline corrosion, Moriber4 notes:"The Needle and the Damage Done" is a song by Neil Young that describes the destruction caused by the heroin addiction of musicians he knew.

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The damage done

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The Needle and the Damage Done - Wikipedia