Focus on Society The Ottoman Empire: Focus on Society By the 16th century, the vast and mighty empire of the Ottomans had reached the zenith of its power. The lands under Ottoman rule stretched from the heart of Central Europe to the deserts of Arabia.
Suleiman during the Siege of Rhodes in Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, eventually suppressing a revolt led by the Ottoman-appointed governor of Damascus in Suleiman soon made preparations for the conquest of Belgrade from the Kingdom of Hungary —something his great-grandfather Mehmed II had failed to achieve because of John Hunyadi 's strong defense in the region.
Its capture was vital in removing the Hungarians and Croats who, following the defeats of the AlbaniansBosniaksBulgariansByzantines and the Serbsremained the only formidable force who could block further Ottoman gains in Europe.
Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. Belgrade, with a garrison of only men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, fell in August As the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire to Constantinople was to note, "The capture of Belgrade was at the origin of the dramatic events which engulfed Hungary.
It led to the death of King Louisthe capture of Budathe occupation of Transylvaniathe ruin of a flourishing kingdom and the fear of neighboring nations that they would suffer the same fate In the summer oftaking advantage of the large navy he inherited from his father, Suleiman dispatched an armada of some ships towards Rhodes, while personally leading an army ofacross Asia Minor to a point opposite the island itself.
Following the brutal five-month Siege of RhodesRhodes capitulated and Suleiman allowed the Knights of Rhodes to depart. In its wake, Hungarian resistance collapsed, and the Ottoman Empire became the preeminent power in Central Europe. Reacting inSuleiman marched through the valley of the Danube and regained control of Buda; in the following autumn, his forces laid siege to Vienna.
This was to be the Ottoman Empire's most ambitious expedition and the apogee of its drive to the West. In both cases, the Ottoman army was plagued by bad weather, forcing them to leave behind essential siege equipment, and was hobbled by overstretched supply lines. In the Habsburgs attempted to lay siege to Buda but were repulsed, and more Habsburg fortresses were captured by the Ottomans in two consecutive campaigns in and as a result,  Ferdinand and Charles were forced to conclude a humiliating five-year treaty with Suleiman.
Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control. Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor' but as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to identify as the true 'Caesar'.
Ottoman—Safavid War —55 Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivansummer As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever-present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia.
Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids.
Having joined Ibrahim inSuleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior.
As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, using scorched earth tactics in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus. Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia.
The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain. Ina settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asian campaigns.
Part of the treaty included and confirmed the return of Tabriz, but secured Baghdad, lower Mesopotamiathe mouths of the river Euphrates and Tigrisas well as part of the Persian Gulf.
Ottoman ships had been sailing in the Indian Ocean since the year The Mughal Emperor Akbar himself is known to have exchanged six documents with Suleiman the Magnificent. Aden in Yemen was captured by the Ottomans inin order to provide an Ottoman base for raids against Portuguese possessions on the western coast of India.
After the first Ajuran-Portuguese warthe Ottoman Empire would in absorb the weakened Adal Sultanate into its domain.
This expansion fathered Ottoman rule in Somalia and the Horn of Africa. This also increased its influence in the Indian Ocean to compete with the Portuguese Empire with its close ally the Ajuran Empire. As a result, an Ottoman expedition to Aceh was launched, which was able to provide extensive military support to the Acehnese.
The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century. The Ajuran Sultanate allied with the Ottomans defied the Portuguese economic monopoly in the Indian Ocean by employing a new coinage which followed the Ottoman pattern, thus proclaiming an attitude of economic independence in regard to the Portuguese.
Having consolidated his conquests on land, Suleiman was greeted with the news that the fortress of Koroni in Morea the modern Peloponnesepeninsular Greece had been lost to Charles V's admiral, Andrea Doria. The presence of the Spanish in the Eastern Mediterranean concerned Suleiman, who saw it as an early indication of Charles V's intention to rival Ottoman dominance in the region.
Recognizing the need to reassert naval preeminence in the MediterraneanSuleiman appointed an exceptional naval commander in the form of Khair ad Dinknown to Europeans as Barbarossa. Once appointed admiral-in-chief, Barbarossa was charged with rebuilding the Ottoman fleet, to such an extent that the Ottoman navy equaled in number those of all other Mediterranean countries put together.
John  to victory against the Ottomans at Tuniswhich together with the war against Venice the following year, led Suleiman to accept proposals from Francis I of France to form an alliance against Charles.
The Barbary States of TripolitaniaTunisia and Algeria became autonomous provinces of the Empire, serving as the leading edge of Suleiman's conflict with Charles V, whose attempt to drive out the Turks failed in The Siege of Malta in As a result, Suleiman dispatched galleys  under Barbarossa to assist the French in the western Mediterranean.
Barbarossa pillaged the coast of Naples and Sicily before reaching France, where Francis made Toulon the Ottoman admiral's naval headquarters.A large Ottoman fleet was gathered, and out of 28,, Ottoman troops, an estimated 20,, were iridis-photo-restoration.com knights had an estimated 6, iridis-photo-restoration.com Siege of Malta did little to alter the balance of power in the Mediterranean, but it was the first true defeat of the Ottoman Empire in a century and lifted European morale .
Fulani empire: Fulani empire, Muslim theocracy of the Western Sudan that flourished in the 19th century. The Fulani, a people of obscure origins, expanded eastward from Futa Toro in Lower Senegal in the 14th century. By the 16th century they had established themselves at .
They reached their zenith of power with Suleyman the Magnificent whose armies reached Hungary and Austria. From the 17th century onward with the rise of Western European powers and later Russia, the power of the Ottomans began to wane.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, in particular at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a powerful multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa.
The Ottoman Empire also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state founded by Turkish tribes under Osman Bey in north-western Anatolia in Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan.
The Empire reached the zenith of its power under Süleyman the Magnificent (known in Turkish as Kanuni or the Lawgiver) in the 16th century.
In the following 88 years () the Ottomans not only suffered no territorial losses, but even rounded off .