November 07, ; Accepted date:
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Abstract Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic fields and resulting electromagnetic radiation.
In many cases this pollution is much stronger than any natural sources of electromagnetic fields or radiation. The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on humans. This is despite the fact that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields were classified as potentially carcinogenic.
For these reasons, in recent decades a significant growth can be observed in scientific research in order to understand the influence of electromagnetic radiation on living organisms. However, for this type of research the appropriate selection of relevant model organisms is of great importance.
It should be noted here that the great majority of scientific research papers published in this field concerned various tests performed on mammals, practically neglecting lower organisms. In that context the objective of this paper is to systematise our knowledge in this area, in which the influence of electromagnetic radiation on lower organisms was investigated, including bacteria, E.
Introduction Current technologies have become a source of omnipresent electromagnetic pollution from generated electromagnetic Electrostatics influence our lives and resulting electromagnetic radiation. Wireless and radio communication, power transmission, or devices in daily use such as smartphones, tablets, and portable computers every day expose people to electromagnetic pollution.
The harm caused by this pollution is still open to question since there is no clear and definitive evidence of its negative influence on human beings.
Among the elements of that environment all living organisms should be placed at the first position. Therefore it becomes very important to appropriately determine the nature and related side effects of electromagnetic pollution and its impact Electrostatics influence our lives living organisms.
Every day living organisms are exposed to different types of electromagnetic pollution.
Electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets, microwave ovens, radio, and television sets emit low intensity electromagnetic radiation at frequencies from MHz to GHz that can be associated with microwaves.
On the other hand power transmission lines and electric devices are strong sources of electromagnetic fields primarily electric for power transmission lines, primarily magnetic for transformers, or electromagnetic for antennas and radiation of much lower frequencies but much higher intensities.
According to the European Commission the sources of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation can be classified as [ 1 ]: Sources of electromagnetic fields and radiation influencing living organisms [ 1 ].
For example, high energy microwave radiation at frequencies from MHz to GHz can be carcinogenic and cause thermal effects, increasing the temperature of exposed organisms.
On the other hand the same type of microwave radiation at lower frequencies from kHz to MHz has no such effect. It is very important to note that the sources of electromagnetic radiation characterised by field frequencies below GHz can be associated with the nonionizing type of radiation [ 2 ].
On the other hand low frequency electromagnetic fields are the source of another type of electromagnetic radiation as in the case of power transmission lines or transformers by the action of the processes and devices present in the Power System [ 3 ].
Such electromagnetic fields that are characterised by field frequencies of 50 Hz or 60 Hz are quasi-stationary and their two field components electric and magnetic can be considered as separate [ 2 ].
The opinions of researchers about the influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms are divided. The scale of this problem can be illustrated by the fact that from to more than epidemiological studies were published about the effects of electromagnetic fields generated by power transmission lines on human beings.
Alarming reports of potentially harmful effects of electromagnetic pollution drew the attention of the World Health Organization WHOwhich in presented a summary report of an international research program titled Electromagnetic Fields [ 5 ].
In that program more than 1, various scientific publications and research reports were examined. In the report section dedicated to the effects of low frequency magnetic fields of 50 Hz and 60 Hz it was stated that there are no firm grounds to tighten up the current limits for long-term exposure to these fields; however, caution is advised [ 5 ].
In Mayin Lyon, France, the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC and WHO qualified the electromagnetic fields of radio frequencies as possibly increasing the risk of developing a malignant brain cancer, glioma, which is mainly associated with the use of mobile phones [ 6 ].
The problems described above still remain unanswered today and result in a great increase of interest in all aspects of electromagnetic pollution and especially its influence on living organisms.
This statement can be also backed up by Figure 1which presents the annual number of research papers published after and entirely dedicated to this problem, based on the Science Direct research publication database.
The following list of keywords was used for the search of related publications: The search results include both epidemiological and experimental studies. Epidemiological research concerned the observation of human individuals who had been exposed to increased electromagnetic radiation for longer periods of time, such as railway workers or people living in the neighbourhood of power transmission lines.
On the other hand experimental research concerned specific selected model organisms and as such were conducted considerably more often than epidemiological studies. In contrast to the epidemiological research, in the experimental research the appropriate selection of model organisms is always of the greatest importance and must be completed prior to any experimental phase and is also based on the nature of the research and expected results.
In this paper, research results reported in the available literature, focused on specific and current investigations concerning model organisms, are presented and discussed.
Two criteria were used in order to differentiate the results taken into consideration: At the same time three main thematic groups can be easily distinguished based on the careful analysis of the selected papers and reports; please see Figure 2.
The extensive results of research related to the influence of electromagnetic fields on the model organisms just mentioned until today have not been a subject of a unified and thorough review analysis.
Within this group most papers and reports concerned the influence of electromagnetic fields on birds and were carried out on chickens Gallus gallus subsp. It should be noted that both the chicken species have practically the same number of genes as humans, which is from 20, to 23, for the chickens and from 20, to 25, for humans.
Moreover, the firm position of the chickens in scientific research has economic grounds, since the global consumption and production of chicken meat and eggs constantly increase [ 40 ]. Also the influence of electromagnetic fields on immune systems of rats and humans was investigated and reported in [ 3741 — 43 ].After writing this essay, I have realized the importance of electrostatics in our lives.
I have seen that electrostatics play an important role in almost every aspect of our life. One of the main concepts of electrostatics is electricity. The Impact of Social Media in Our Daily Lives If one were to look back over the last decade and try to find some element that affected society as a whole from a technical standpoint, there would be a couple of possible contenders.
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