Susan February 18, at 9: Kevin February 19, at 3: The equivalent of male castration is female castration: If you think MGM cannot be harmful, please explain the boys who have died from it in Eastern Cape, South Africa alone in the last 20 years.
Sometimes genital tissue is stitched again several times, including after childbirth, hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing procedures, further increasing both immediate and long-term risks; psychological problems depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.
Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 million girls are estimated to be at risk for FGM annually. More than million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated 1.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries the Middle East and Asia, as well as among migrants from these areas. FGM is therefore a global concern. Cultural and social factors for performing FGM The reasons why female genital mutilations are performed vary from one region to another as well as over time, and include a Cultures the case of genital mutilation of sociocultural factors within families and communities.
The most commonly cited reasons are: Where FGM is a social convention social normthe social pressure to conform to what others do and have been doing, as well as the need to be accepted socially and the fear of being rejected by the community, are strong motivations to perpetuate the practice.
In some communities, FGM is almost universally performed and unquestioned. FGM is often considered a necessary part of raising a girl, and a way to prepare her for adulthood and marriage.
FGM is often motivated by beliefs about what is considered acceptable sexual behaviour. It aims to ensure premarital virginity and marital fidelity. FGM is in many communities believed to reduce a woman's libido and therefore believed to help her resist extramarital sexual acts.
When a vaginal opening is covered or narrowed type 3the fear of the pain of opening it, and the fear that this will be found out, is expected to further discourage extramarital sexual intercourse among women with this type of FGM.
Where it is believed that being cut increases marriageability, FGM is more likely to be carried out. FGM is associated with cultural ideals of femininity and modesty, which include the notion that girls are clean and beautiful after removal of body parts that are considered unclean, unfeminine or male.
Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice, practitioners often believe the practice has religious support. Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice.
In most societies, where FGM is practised, it is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation. In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups.
Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement.
Sincegreat efforts have been made to counteract FGM, through research, work within communities, and changes in public policy. Progress at international, national and sub-national levels includes: Research shows that, if practicing communities themselves decide to abandon FGM, the practice can be eliminated very rapidly.
InWHO together with 9 other United Nations partners, issued a statement on the elimination of FGM to support increased advocacy for its abandonment, called: This statement provided evidence collected over the previous decade about the practice of FGM.
InWHO published a "Global strategy to stop health care providers from performing female genital mutilation" in collaboration with other key UN agencies and international organizations. In Decemberthe UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on the elimination of female genital mutilation.
Building on a previous report fromin UNICEF launched an updated report documenting the prevalence of FGM in 30 countries, as well as beliefs, attitudes, trends, and programmatic and policy responses to the practice globally. The guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of the best available evidence on health interventions for women living with FGM.
To ensure the effective implementation of the guidelines, WHO is developing tools for front-line health-care workers to improve knowledge, attitudes, and skills of health care providers in preventing and managing the complications of FGM.
WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:May 02, · Michigan Case Adds U.S. Dimension to Debate on Genital Mutilation The first-ever charges in America call attention to the practices of a small Muslim sect, and have women coming forward to describe their experiences.
Learn about female genital cutting from the Office on Women's Health. Different communities and cultures have different reasons for practicing FGM/C; Sexual quality of life in women who have undergone female genital mutilation: a case .
Sep 19, · Judging Other Cultures: The Case of Genital Mutilation by Martha Nussbaum (response) Posted on September 19, by andrewd What really caught my attention as I began reading this article was when I saw that female genital mutilation (FGM) was going to be part of what this passage is going to be about.
The third argument says that female genital mutilation is equal in morality to dieting and body shaping in the Western culture. However, there are several basic differences between the two practices. The first difference is that while dieting and body shaping is completely voluntary, genital mutilation is an involuntary procedure.
practice, it remains embedded in Somali culture. Female genital mutilation is a social ritual performed in 28 countries ranging from Africa to the Middle East and some of the Islamic Asian countries.
It is estimated that the most severe form of The case studies collected by UNICEF as part of a larger survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs. Feb 07, · Female genital mutilation is a classic example of a practice that is proscribed in some cultures, but permitted in others.
The historian Herodotus described the contrasting practices of two cultures towards their dead. The ancient Greeks cremated their dead, while the Callatian Indians would eat the bodies of their deceased fathers.