Section 2 4 The Greeks in Egypt.
A stone tomb constructed to house a deceased pharaoh of Egypt.
A form of government in which God or some supreme deity is the ruler. A stepped foundation or structure that held a shrine or temple in the Mesopotamian religion. These ancient religions affected every aspect of life in the ancient Near East, from spirituality to farming, from medicine to the rule of society.
Membership was not a choice as it is in modern religions. Rather, religion was a fact of life for everyone. Each person had favorite gods or goddesses to whom they prayed and sacrificed. History and development Mesopotamia, a word made up from two Greek words meaning "between the rivers," is an ancient name for an area encompassed by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
It stretches from the Persian Gulf in the south to the mountains of Armenia in the north and covers most of modern-day Iraq. Mesopotamia had a much different climate when it was first settled about eight to ten thousand years ago.
At that time it was a land of marshes and grassland rather than desert as it is now. Humans began intensive farming in the area as early as 3, bce.
From the earliest times farming depended on irrigation, a way of watering crops that relied on bringing water to the fields through man-made ditches or canals. Anthropologists scientists who study humans and their relations to various factors believe that local tribes came together to dig the needed canals.
The semi-nomadic wandering way of life the tribes followed was altered, and they settled in large communities near the canals. Eventually these communities became the first cities. City-states like Ur and Lagash had become powerful forces in the region by about the middle of the fourth millennium bce.
Religion in Sumer The first center of civilization was in the south, in what was called Sumer. There, farming villages became a series of a dozen powerful city-states, including Ur, Uruk, Lagash, Umma, Eridu, and Nippur.
At times they were in competition with each other, and at other times they banded together to fight common enemies. The earliest written records of the first Sumerian societies also date from about this time c. It is significant that these records, written in the form of clay tablets, were about the operation of temples.
Thus, already by the time of the first real towns and cities in human history, Mesopotamian religion had already become well organized. Various clay tablets have been found with details of the religion, as well as sacred vessels and architectural remains of temples.
These all help to give an overview of the religion. The environment of Mesopotamia largely shaped its religion. Unlike the Nile River in Egypt, which rises and falls slowly on a very predictable schedule, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers could and often did rise quickly and violently, causing disastrous flooding.
Because of this, the Mesopotamians felt that nature was dangerous and far beyond the control of mere humans.
The earliest Mesopotamian deities thus represented different aspects of nature and were honored in hopes of winning their favor. For instance, Anu, the god of the sky, might have been worshipped to keep violent storms from damaging the crops.
Hursag, the goddess of mountains and foothills, would be invoked by priests to stop an invasion of barbarian tribes. Deities were often represented as human beings and some symbolic natural object. Once given human form, a process called anthropomorphism, the gods were then grouped in families.
Mesopotamian gods were worshipped in temple complexes that formed the center of every city. Built of mud bricks, these tall, conical structures were stepped, or built in receding tiers on platforms of different shapes.
These platforms were crowned at the top by a shrine or a temple. The whole complex was called a ziggurat, and averaged about feet Ziggurats stretched tower-like toward the sky, forming a bridge between Earth and heaven, like the mountains that were sacred to the Sumerians.
Each Mesopotamian city had at least one temple complex, and each complex was dedicated to the worship of a single deity.
The temple complex in Ur, for instance, honored the moon god Sin also called Nanna by the Sumerians. The city of Uruk had both a temple to Inanna and a ziggurat dedicated to Anu. The complexes were managed by specialist priests, who were the only people allowed to worship the deities. The Akkadians The development of religion in Mesopotamia followed the movement of peoples in the region.
Historians say that the Sumerian civilization lasted from about to about bce. Sargon the Great reigned c.the important coastal city of Ugarit was a serious matter, because Egyptian control over Syria required bases along the littoral for inland operations and the provisioning of the iridis-photo-restoration.com was pacified, and the fealty of Syrian cities, including Kadesh, was reconfirmed..
In the Foreword to John Currid's book, the eminent Kenneth Kitchen writes that the "whole subject of the interrelations of ancient Egypt and the Old Testament is very much larger than most people realize" and in this book Currid has selected a series of themes.
Women In Patriarchal Societies. The Origins Of Civilizations. Date: Most agricultural civilizations downgraded the status and potential of. Compare Egyptian culture to Mesopotamian culture. How and why were they different? In what ways were they similar? It is natural to want to draw similarities to two early civilizations as great as Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, and they offer many differences and similarities.
Differences Between Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Ancient Egypt had a different political structure from Mesopotamia. In ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh was considered to . Egyptian civilization and a fundamental Mesopotamian culture lasted far longer than the civilizations that came later, in part because of relative isolation within each .